Article published on 17 April 2020 on global opinion site Project Syndicate. From the article's opening paragraph: "As the coronavirus pandemic has swept the planet, Sweden has stood out among Western democracies by pursuing a "low-scale" lockdown. Whether this approach speaks to a unique strength of Swedish society, as opposed to bad judgment, can be determined by comparing Sweden's COVID-19 rate with its neighbors'."

This essay discusses important aspects of reforms in healthcare in Sweden at the beginning of the 1990s. Healthcare systems are marred by a set of basic dilemmas, without any final solution. The solution to one problem, like low productivity, tends to be followed by new problems arising from the solution. There is also a strong path dependency, given how important health care is in people's lives. Structural reforms are needed, but it is equally important to preserve and promote good cultures. A safe forecast is that health care systems will meet more self-assured patients. Informed patients, though, are mostly for the better.

Lecture: Pressures behind the Swedish Health Reforms


Lecture in Atlanta and San Francisco at Swedish-American seminars, about political institutions and healthcare systems. The lecture was published in "Viewpoint Sweden", number 12, July 1992.